The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international organization that specifies requirements for state-of-the-art products, services, processes, materials and systems. ISO standards are designed to be implemented worldwide and can become a market requirement for the products and services to which they apply.
In determining which printer or multi-function device to purchase, speed is often a critical factor. Until 2009, each manufacturer used its own standards and methodologies to determine speed, making any meaningful comparison impossible.
A common testing methodology was required, and so Canon and other leading printer manufacturers worked together with the ISO to create a set of uniform standards. On 4 March 2009, ISO/IEC 24734 and ISO/IEC 24735 were officially published as the International Standards for measuring the speed of digital printing and copying devices.
ISO/IEC 24734 provides a method for measuring the plain-paper productivity of digital printing devices (in default mode) with various available modes (simplex, duplex, etc.) and office applications, ensuring that the test-system environment, operating modes and job mix for each machine are identical.
It specifies test files, test setup procedures, test runtime procedures and the reporting requirements for digital printing productivity measurements. It is not intended for devices unable to print A4/8.5x11” paper.
ISO/IEC 24735 provides a method for measuring the productivity of digital copying devices (in default mode) with various copying modes.
It is applicable to digital copying devices and multi-function devices – both monochrome and colour – equipped with an automatic document feeder and collating function.
ISO/IEC 24735 allows the comparison of throughput copying rates for a machine operated in various available modes (complex, duplex, etc.) and digital image processing configurations.
It specifies test files, test setup procedures, and the reporting requirements for digital copying productivity measurements.
Canon began using ISO standards in the first half of 2009 with the introduction of PIXMA MX328, MX338 and MX868.
All applicable printers and All-in-One since have employed ISO standards to express print and copy speeds. Canon’s early adoption promotes this new form of measurement and exemplifies the Company’s commitment to these internationally defined and practical specifications.
It is important to note that the ISO standards define only print and copy speed criteria. With the exception that the “Default” standard mode required assumes reasonable print quality necessary for actual usage, they are not meant to provide any other definitions related to print quality.
The use of both “pages per minute” (ppm) and “images per minute” (ipm) is acceptable under the ISO standards. However, there is a concern that using “ppm” will cause confusion.
Since the “ppm” unit of measurement can be applied to both ISO standards as well as the previous standards used by individual printer manufacturers. Canon will only use “ipm” to express speeds for ESAT print and ESAT (ADF) copy.
Whenever the new speeds measured by the ISO standards become available, Canon will cease using the outdated “ppm” designation. Only “ipm” will be used to avoid any possibility of confusion.
It is recommended that the Summary Report be presented in brochures and other sales materials; however, the minimum information required is ESAT.
Canon’s own Data Disclosure dictates that Packages/Sales Materials should include basic specification; and that Summary Reports be available online.
ESAT – Estimated Saturated Throughput
- Average print speed for all document sets excluding the first set in Simplex mode (one-sided print) at default print speed (monochrome and colour)
- In order to differentiate it from the conventional “ppm”, Canon will use “ipm” (images per minute)
FCOT – First Copy Out Time
- First page copy speed (without ADF) shall be described in “seconds”
ESAT – Estimated Saturated Throughput (for copying)
- Average copy speed for all document sets excluding the first set in Simplex mode (one-sided copy) at default print speed (colour only)
- In order to differentiate it from the conventional “cpm”, Canon will use “ipm” (images per minute)
The ISO documents are available for purchase via the ISO website. After purchase, the documents and test files can be downloaded. For details on purchasing ISO documents, visit:
ISO/IEC 24734 (2014)
ISO/IEC 24735 (2012)